CANADA

Canada is a North American country stretching from the U.S. in the south to the Arctic Circle in the north. Major cities include massive Toronto, west coast film centre Vancouver, French-speaking Montréal and Québec City, and capital city Ottawa. Canada's vast swaths of wilderness include lake-filled Banff National Park in the Rocky Mountains. It's also home to Niagara Falls, a famous group of massive waterfalls.

Capital: Ottawa

Dialing code: +1

Population: 36.29 million (2016) World Bank

Prime minister: Justin Trudeau

The provinces and territories of Canada

The provinces and territories of Canada are the administrative divisions that are responsible for the delivery of sub-national governance within the geographical areas of Canada under the authority of the Canadian Constitution. In the 1867 Canadian Confederation, three provinces of British North America—New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and the Province of Canada (which, upon Confederation, was divided into Ontario and Quebec)—were united to form a federated colony, which eventually became a sovereign nation in the next century. Over its history, Canada's international borders have changed several times, and the country has grown from the original four provinces to the current ten provinces and three territories. The ten provinces are Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, and Saskatchewan. Several of the provinces were former British colonies, and Quebec was originally a French colony, while others were added as Canada grew. The three territories are Northwest Territories, Nunavut, and Yukon, which govern the rest of the area of the former British North America. Together, the provinces and territories make up the world's second-largest country by area.

The major difference between a Canadian province and a territory is that provinces receive their power and authority from the Constitution Act, 1867 (formerly called the British North America Act, 1867), whereas territorial governments have powers delegated to them by the Parliament of Canada. The powers flowing from the Constitution Act are divided between the Government of Canada (the federal government) and the provincial governments to exercise exclusively. A change to the division of powers between the federal government and the provinces requires a constitutional amendment, whereas a similar change affecting the territories can be performed unilaterally by the Parliament of Canada or government.

In modern Canadian constitutional theory, the provinces are considered to be sovereign within certain areas based on the divisions of responsibility between the provincial and federal government within the Constitution Act 1867, and each province thus has its own representative of the Canadian "Crown", the lieutenant governor. The territories are not sovereign, but instead their authorities and responsibilities come directly from the federal level, and as a result have a commissioner instead of a lieutenant governor.

Government:

Representative democracy, Constitutional monarchy, Parliamentary system, Federal monarchy

Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world's second-largest country by total area and the fourth-largest country by land area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border. The majority of the country has a cold or severely cold winter climate, but southerly areas are warm in summer. Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land territory being dominated by forest and tundra and the Rocky Mountains. It is highly urbanized with 82 per cent of the 35.15 million people concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Its capital is Ottawa, and its largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver.

Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century, the British and French established colonies, the first being the colony of Canada established by France in 1535. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, British North America gained and lost territory until, by the late 18th century, it controlled most of what comprises Canada today. On July 1, 1867, the colonies of Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia were federated to form the semi-autonomous federal Dominion named Canada. This began an accretion of provinces and territories to the Dominion to the present ten provinces and three territories forming contemporary Canada. In 1931, Canada achieved near-total independence from the United Kingdom with the Statute of Westminster 1931, except for the power to amend its constitution. With the Constitution Act of 1982, Canada took over that authority (as the conclusion of Patriation).

Canada is a federal parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II being the head of state. The country is officially bilingual at the federal level. It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture.

Canada is a developed country and has the fifteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the tenth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, and education. Canada is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie, and part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.

Former Prime Ministers of Canada in order of their first assumption of office:

  • Joe Clark (1979–1980)
  • John Turner (1984)
  • Brian Mulroney (1984–1993)
  • Kim Campbell (1993)
  • Jean Chrétien (1993–2003)
  • Paul Martin (2003–2006)
  • Stephen Harper (2006–2015)

Current Prime Minister of Canada-Justin Trudeau:

Justin Pierre James Trudeau PC MP (born December 25, 1971) is a Canadian politician. He is the 23rd and current Prime Minister of Canada and leader of the Liberal Party. The second youngest prime minister after Joe Clark, he is also, as the eldest son of former Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, the first to be related to a previous holder of the post.

Born in Ottawa, Trudeau attended Collège Jean-de-Brébeuf and graduated from McGill University in 1994 and the University of British Columbia in 1998. He gained a high public profile in October 2000, when he delivered a eulogy at his father's state funeral.[5] After graduating, he worked as a teacher in Vancouver, British Columbia. He completed one year of an engineering program at Montreal's ÉcolePolytechnique before quitting in 2003. In 2005 he began a master's degree in environmental geography at McGill University but quit after one year. He used his public profile to advocate for various causes and acted in the 2007 TV miniseries The Great War.[6]

Eight years after his father's death, Trudeau entered politics. In the 2008 federal election, he was elected to represent the riding of Papineau in the House of Commons. In 2009, he was appointed the Liberal Party's critic for youth and multiculturalism, and the following year, became critic for citizenship and immigration. In 2011, he was appointed as critic for secondary education and youth and amateur sport. Trudeau won the leadership of the Liberal Party in April 2013 and went on to lead his party to victory in the 2015 federal election, moving the 3rd-placed Liberals from 36 seats to 184 seats, the largest-ever numerical increase by a party in a Canadian election.

Facts about Canada. Want to know more about Canada?

  • Canada is the second largest country in the world, right after Russia.
  • Canada is the World's Most Educated Country: over half its residents have college degrees.
  • Canada's lowest recorded temperature was -81.4 degrees Fahrenheit (-63 C) in 1947.
  • Canada has more lakes than the rest of the world's lakes combined. Ontario, Canada, has more than 250,000 lakes. They contain about 1/5 of the world's fresh water.
  • Canada consumes more macaroni and cheese than any other nation in the world.
  • Prostitution is legal in Canada. Buying the services of a prostitute is not.
  • License plates in the Canadian Northwest Territories are shaped like polar bears.
  • Canada has the longest coastline of any country in the world at 243,977 kilometers – 151,600 miles.
  • With 1,896 km (1,178 mi), the Yonge Street in Canada, is the longest street in the world
  • The U.S. / Canada Border is the longest international border in the world and it lacks military defense.
  • Canada's official phone number is 1-800-O-CANADA
  • Police Departments in Canada give out "positive tickets" when they see people doing something positive
  • Canada has the third largest oil reserves of any country in the world after Saudi Arabia and Venezuela
  • In Canada, Mexico, India, Russia and Israel, bank notes have Braille-like markings on them for the blind.
  • Canada consumes the most doughnuts and has the most doughnut shops per capita of any country in the world.
  • The North American Beaver is the national animal of Canada.
  • There's a service called "Cleaning for a Reason" in the U.S. and Canada that cleans the houses of women with cancer for free so they can focus on their health
  • The Canadian Province of Alberta has been rat-free for over 50 years.
  • After Paris, Montreal is the largest French speaking city in the world.
  • Based on Statistics Canada, 6.8 million Canadians are foreign born. That is 20.6% or 1 out of 5 are born out of the country. This is the highest number of any G8 country.
  • Canada produces 77% of the world's maple syrup. 91% comes from Quebec alone.
  • Practically everything is written in English and French. Although, 6.5 million Canadians speak another language in addition to English and French.
  • 60% of the world's polar bear population of approximately 25,000 live in Canada
  • The name Canada is from the Iroquoian language meaning, "village." When French explorer Jacques Cartier was invited by the Iroquois to their village "kanata," he thought that was the name of the country.
  • The capital of Canada is Ottawa, the second coldest capital in the world.
  • Canada has six time zones.
  • Half of the country is covered with forests, which should come as no surprise considering one-tenth of the world’s forests are here
  • The highest mountain in Canada is Mount Logan, Yukon Territory, 5959 metres (19,551 feet).
  • Ocean Falls, British Columbia has on average 330 days of rain per year.
  • Estevan, Saskatchewan is reportedly the sunniest place in Canada with 2,537 hours of sunshine per year.
  • Calgary is famous for its’ Chinooks – a weather phenomenon that can raise the temperature by 10 degrees in a matter of minutes.
  • Canadians like to finish a sentence with the word eh. The famous Canadian interjection "eh" is actually listed in the Canadian Oxford Dictionary as a valid word.
  • Ice hockey, football and baseball are Canadians favorite spectator sports.
  • The English version of Canada’s National Anthem – O Canada – was written by Robert Stanley Weir for the Diamond Jubilee of Confederation in 1927.
  • The National Flag of Canada came into being in 1965 to replace the Union Jack. It is an 11 pointed red maple leaf on a white square.
  • There are 459 cars for every 1000 people.
  • Toronto’s Rogers Centre, formerly known as the SkyDome, is home to the largest Sony big screen in the world, measuring 10 m x 33.6 m.
  • The Hotel de Glace in Quebec is built every year using 400 tons of ice and 12 000 tons of snow. Every summer it melts away, only to be rebuilt the following winter.
  • Underneath the city of Toronto, is a system of pedestrian walkways called PATH connecting 1200 stores and restaurants, 50 office towers, 20 parking garages, 5 subway stations and a railway station. With 30 km of walkways, it is the largest underground shopping complex according to the Guinness World Records.
  • No cows in Canada are given artificial hormones for milk production. Which means no dairy products, like milk, cheese, or yogurt, produced in Canada contain hormones either!
  • Canada's post office receives millions of letters addressed to "Santa Claus, North Pole" each year. They respond to each one as Mrs. Claus. They've claimed the address "Santa Claus, North Pole, H0H 0H0.
  • Manitoba has the largest concentration of snakes in the world. Around 70,000 snakes, particularly red-sided garter snakes, emerge in May as they come out of hibernation. For those with ophidiophobia (fear of snakes), stay away! On the other hand, there are no snakes on the island of Newfoundland.
  • Many of Canada’s national parks are bigger than countries. Wood Buffalo National Park in Alberta is larger than Denmark and Switzerland.
  • Poutine is a popular food in Canada.
  • The Canadian motto, A Mari Usque ad Mare, means "From sea to sea.
  • The regent of England, currently Queen Elizabeth II, is the Canadian head of state.
  • Residents of Churchill, Canada, leave their cars unlocked to offer an escape for pedestrians who might encounter Polar Bears.
  • The most common last name in Canada is "Li".
  • There's an area in the Hudson Bay region has less gravity than the rest of the planet.
  • Canada has been invaded twice by Americans - both in 1775 and 1812.They lost both times.
  • In Newfoundland,Canada, the Atlantic ocean sometimes freezes,So people play hockey on it.
  • Canada is the most peaceful country on earth. Canada has no weapons of mass destruction since 1984 and has signed treaties repudiating their possession.
  • Canada has only 198 Jails. Canada has the world’s smallest jail – in Rodney, Ontario; it’s only 24.3 square metres (270 square feet).
  • According to the U.N.Human Development Index,Canada has the highest quality of life in the world.
  • The Trans-Canada highway crosses Canada and is 7,821 Km long.
  • 20% of the world’s fresh water is in Canada.
  • More than 80% of the population lives within 150 miles of the US border.
  • 2.4 million Caribou(Reindeer) live in Canada.
  • The Average age of the Canadian is 40.6
  • Despite being a huge country, Canada has the fourth lowest population density in the world, with only three people living per square kilometer. Canada has fewer people than Tokyo's metropolitan area.

TOP ATTRACTIONS IN CANADA

Alberta
  • Icefields Parkway
  • Lake Louise
  • Jasper Provincial Park
  • Fort Calgary Historic Park
  • Athabasca Glacier
  • Calgary Zoo
  • Rocky Mountains
  • Kicking Horse River
  • Moraine Lake
  • Takakkaw Falls
  • Tunnel Mountain Drive
  • Victoria Glacier
  • Canada Olympic Park
  • Maligne Canyon
  • Spiral Tunnels
  • Medicine Lake
  • Peyto Lake
  • Via Ferrata
  • Sulphur Mountain
  • Mt Edith Cavell
  • Bow Lake
  • Crowfoot Glacier
  • Johnston Canyon
  • Stanley Glacier
  • Yellowhead Pass
  • Yoho National Park
  • Kananaskis River
  • Columbia Icefield
  • Banff Gondola
  • Glacier Skywalk
  • Athabasca River
  • Lake Minnewanka
  • Maligne Lake
  • Jasper SkyTram
  • Royal Tyrrell Museum
  • Atlas Coal Mine
  • Heritage Park
  • Athabasca Falls
  • West Edmonton Mall
  • Calaway Park
  • Calgary Tower
  • Glenbow Museum
  • Aero Space Museum of Calgary
  • Banff Upper Hot Springs
  • Bow Falls
  • Calgary Stampede
  • Canada's Sports Hall of Fame
  • Banff National Park, Alberta
  • Cave and Basin National Historic Site
  • Fraser River
  • Kicking Horse Mountain Resort
  • Medalta
  • Miette Hot Springs
  • Mount Robson
  • Mt Assiniboine
  • Mt Norquay
  • Sunshine Village
  • Sunwapta Falls
  • TELUS Spark Science Center
  • Yamnuska Wolfdog Sanctuary
  • Lethbridge Japanese Gardens
  • Dinosaur Provincial Park
British Columbia
  • Pacific Rim National Park
  • Grouse Mountain
  • Whistler-Blackcomb Mountains
  • Dr Sun Yat-Sen Chinese Garden
  • Capilano Suspension Bridge Park
  • Granville Island
  • Vancouver Aquarium Marine Science Centre
  • Robson Street
  • Victoria Beacon Hill Park
  • Stanley Park
  • Whistler Fairmont Chateau
  • Okanagan Valley
  • Victoria Bug Zoo
  • Miniature World
  • Butchart Gardens
  • Squamish Lil'wat Cultural Center
  • Vancouver Cruise Port
  • Craigdarroch Castle
  • Peak 2 Peak Gondola
  • Britannia Mine Museum
  • Sea to Sky Gondola
  • Green Lake
  • Vancouver Police Museum
  • Vancouver Maritime Museum
  • Grouse Mountain Refuge for Endangered Wildlife
  • Capilano Salmon Hatchery
  • Olympic Village
  • Canada Place
  • Downtown Vancouver
  • Royal British Columbia Museum
  • False Creek
  • Victoria Cruise Port
  • Yaletown
  • Victoria Chinatown
  • Library Square
  • Victoria Inner Harbour
  • Vancouver Art Gallery
  • Bloedel Floral Conservatory
  • English Bay
  • Abkhazi Garden
  • Alexander Falls
  • BC Place Stadium
  • Bowen Island
  • Brandywine Falls
  • British Columbia Legislature Buildings
  • Brockton Point
  • Callaghan Lake Provincial Park
  • Cleveland Dam
  • Fort Langley National Historic Site
  • Gulf Islands
  • Harrison River
  • HR Macmillan Space Centre
  • Museum of Anthropology
  • Porteau Cove Provincial Park
  • Queen Elizabeth Park
  • Race Rocks
  • Rocky Mountaineer Train
  • Shannon Falls
  • Stawamus Chief Provincial Park
  • Victoria Butterfly Gardens
  • Barkerville Historic Town
  • Lynn Canyon Park
  • Royal British Columbia Museum
  • Science World
Manitoba
  • Manitoba Museum
  • Manitoba Children's Museum
  • Leo Mol Sculpture Garden
  • Polar bear watching, Manitoba
New Brunswick
  • Mount Carleton
  • Acadian Historical Village
  • New Brunswick Museum
  • Bay of Fundy
  • Metepenagiag Heritage Park
  • Reversing Falls
  • Saint John City Market
  • Hopewell Rocks
NEWFOUNDLAND & LABRADOR
  • Pippy Park
  • Railway Coastal Museum
  • Johnson Geo Centre
  • Bowring Park
  • Cape Bonavista Lighthouse
  • Newfoundland Puffin and Whale Watch Cruise
  • Trinity Bay Whale Watching Tour
NORTHWEST-TERRITORIES
  • Nahanni National Park
  • Yellowknife Snowking's Winter Festival
  • Yellowknife Helicopter Tour
  • Northern Lights (aurora borealis)
NOVA SCOTIA
  • Cabot Trail
  • Annapolis Valley
  • Peggy’s Cove
  • Halifax Seaport Farmer’s Market
  • Maritime Museum of the Atlantic
  • Oak Island
  • Old Town Clock
  • Point Pleasant Park
  • Province House
  • Citadel National Historic Site
  • Fairview Lawn Cemetery
  • Glooscap Heritage Centre & Mi'kmaq Museum
  • Halifax Citadel
  • Museum of Natural History
  • Cape Breton Highlands National Park
ONTARIO
  • Niagara Falls
  • Bird Kingdom Niagara Falls
  • Harbourfront Centre
  • CN Tower
  • Skylon Tower
  • Ripley's Believe It or Not! Niagara Falls
  • Canadian Aviation and Space Museum
  • Canadian War Museum
  • Fallsview Indoor Waterpark
  • Royal Ontario Museum
  • Ottawa Parliament Hill
  • National Gallery of Canada
  • Ottawa Notre Dame Basilica (Basilique-Cathédrale Notre-Dame)
  • Canadian Museum of History
  • Gatineau Park
  • Toronto Islands
  • Toronto Harbor
  • Casa Loma
  • Ripley's Aquarium Of Canada
  • Niagara Falls IMAX Theatre
  • Niagara SkyWheel
  • Movieland Wax Museum of the Stars
  • Toronto Chinatown
  • Louis Tussaud's Waxworks
  • Canada’s Wonderland
  • Bata Shoe Museum
  • Legoland Discovery Centre Toronto
  • African Lion Safari
  • Algonquin Provincial Park
  • Georgian Bay Islands National Park
  • Royal Canadian Regiment Museum
  • St Catharines
  • Niagara Parks Butterfly Conservatory
  • Art Gallery of Ontario
  • Brock's Monument National Historic Site
  • Confederation Square
  • Floral Clock
  • Fort York
  • Gibraltar Point Lighthouse
  • Great Canadian Midway
  • High Park
  • Humber Bay Park
  • Little India
  • Marineland
  • Nightmares Fear Factory
  • Ontario Place
  • Ontario Science Centre
  • Ripley's Moving Theater
  • Rogers Centre
  • Royal Botanical Gardens
  • Royal Canadian Mint
  • Sugar Beach
  • Toronto Eaton Centre
  • Toronto Little Italy
  • Toronto Zoo
  • Whirlpool Aero Car
  • White Water Walk
  • Yonge-Dundas Square
  • The Air Canada Centre
  • Fort Henry
  • Rideau Canal
  • Parliament Buildings, Ottawa
  • Lady Dive Tours, Ottawa
  • Tyler-Dunn-Guiding, Sault Ste. Marie
PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND
  • Green Gables
  • Confederation Bridge
  • Cavendish Beach
  • Covehead Lighthouse
  • Dunes Studio Gallery
  • Confederation Centre of the Arts
  • Victoria Park
QUEBEC
  • Historic Quebec City
  • Notre-Dame Basilica
  • Mount Royal
  • Montmorency Falls
  • Place Royale
  • Ville-Marie
  • St Lawrence River
  • Bonsecours Market
  • Champ-de-Mars
  • St Paul Street (Rue St-Paul)
  • Place d'Armes
  • Grevin Wax Museum (MuseeGrevin)
  • Citadel of Quebec (Citadelle de Quebec)
  • Old Port of Montreal
  • Montreal Cruise Port
  • Montreal Tower Observatory
  • Biodome de Montreal
  • Underground City
  • Montreal Chinatown
  • Olympic Park
  • St Joseph’s Oratory of Mount Royal
  • Dorchester Square
  • Artillery Park National Historic Site
  • Hôtel de Glace
  • Jacques Cartier Place
  • Lachine Canal (Canal de Lachine)
  • Montreal Biosphere
  • Montreal City Hall
  • Montreal Museum of Contemporary Art (Muséed'ArtContemporain)
  • Montreal Museum of Fine Arts (Musée des Beaux-Arts)
  • Montreal Science Centre
  • Mont Tremblant
  • Musée de la Civilisation
  • Musée du Fort
  • Museum of French America (Musée de l'Amérique Francophone)
  • National Museum of Fine Arts (Musée National des Beaux-Arts)
  • Orleans Island (Ile d'Orleans)
  • Place des Arts
  • Pointe-à-Callière Museum
  • Quebec City Cruise Port
  • Saguenay–St Lawrence Marine Park
  • Saguenay–St Lawrence Marine Park
  • St Patrick's Basilica
  • Ecomuseum Zoo
  • Montreal Botanical Gardens
  • Old Port, Montreal
SASKATCHEWAN
  • Saskatchewan Legislative Building
  • Wanuskewin Heritage Park
  • 3 Flags Motorsports Park
  • MacKenzie Art Gallery
  • Apex Trampoline Park
  • Art Gallery of Regina
  • Athabasca Sand Dunes Provincial Park
  • Battlefords River Valley Visitor Centre
  • Beaver Creek Conservation Area
  • Big Buffalo Beach
  • Big Rock Buffalo Rubbing Stone - Swarthmore Church Site
  • Boomers Air Park
  • Border City Petting Zoo
  • Prince Albert National Park
  • Fort Walsh National Historic Site
  • Moose Jaw
  • Qu'Appelle Valley
YUKON
  • S.S. Klondike National Historic Site
  • Takhini Hot Springs
  • Emerald Lake
  • Copperbelt Railway & Mining Museum
  • Kluane National Park
  • Miles Canyon
  • Whitehorse Fishway
  • Yukon Beringia Interpretive Centre
  • Yukon Wildlife Preserve
  • Signpost-Forest

Average Hourly Wages in Canada in 2017

Profession Average HourlyWage
Retail Sales / Sales Clerk $15
Data Entry Clerk $18
Bookkeeper $20
Accounting Clerk $20
Truck Driver $22
Carpenter $24
Executive Assistant $27
Plumber $28
Electrician $28
Social Worker $31
Architect $32
Registered Nurse $38
Physiotherapist $38
Computer Engineer (not software) $40
Lawyer $57
Computer & Info Sys Manager $62
Engineering Manager $67
Dentist $75

The minimum wage rate applicable in regard to employees under federal jurisdiction is the general adult minimum rate of the province or territory where the employee is usually employed

Jurisdiction Effective Date wages rate
Alberta 01-Oct-2016 $12.20
Alberta 01-Oct-2017 $13.60
Alberta 01-Oct-2018 $15.00
British Columbia 15-Sep-2016 $10.85
British Columbia 15-Sep-2017 $11.35
Manitoba 01-Oct-2015 $11.00
New Brunswick 01-Apr-2017 $11.00
Newfoundland and Labrador 01-Apr-2017 $10.75
Newfoundland and Labrador$ 01-Oct-2017 11.00
Northwest Territories 01-Jun-2015 $12.50
Nova Scotia 01-Apr-2017 $10.85
Nunavut 01-Apr-2016 $13.00
Ontario 01-Oct-2016 $11.40
On October 1 of each year, this rate increases based on changes to the Consumer Price Index.
Ontario 01-Oct-2017 $11.60
On October 1 of each year, this rate increases based on changes to the Consumer Price Index.
Prince Edward Island 01-Apr-2017 $11.25
Quebec 01-May-2017 $11.25
Saskatchewan 01-Oct-2016 $10.72
On October 1 of each year, this rate increases based on the average of the percentage change in the Consumer Price Index and the percentage change in average hourly wage for Saskatchewan during the previous year. Minimum wage increases are subject to Cabinet approval.
Yukon 01-Apr-2017 $11.32

On April 1 of each year, this rate increases by an amount corresponding to the annual increase for the preceding year in the Consumer Price Index for the city of Whitehorse.

Note: In most jurisdictions, these rates also apply to young workers.

This is a list of the 55 largest public companies in Canada by profit as of 2013.

Rank Rank Change Company Profit (1,000's CAD unless otherwise noted) Headquarters
1 Increase 2 Royal Bank of Canada 7,442,000 Montreal & Toronto
2 Steady Bank of Nova Scotia 6,466,000 Toronto
3 Decrease 2 Toronto-Dominion Bank 6,367,000 Toronto
4 Increase 3 Bank of Montreal 4,115,000 Montreal & Toronto
5 Increase 1 Imperial Oil 3,766,000 Calgary
6 Increase 2 CIBC 3,339,000 Toronto
7 Decrease 2 Suncor Energy 2,783,000 Calgary
8 Increase 5 BCE Inc. 2,763,000 Montreal
9 Increase 3 Canadian National Railway 2,680,000 Montreal
10 Decrease 2 Potash Corporation of Saskatchewan 2,668,000[1] Saskatoon
11 Increase 987 The Woodbridge Company 2,070,000[1] Toronto
12 Increase 2 Husky Energy 2,022,000 Calgary
13 Increase 2 Great-West Lifeco 1,930,000 Winnipeg
14 Decrease 3 Canadian Natural Resources 1,892,000 Calgary
15 Increase 35 First Quantum Minerals 1,772,900[1] Vancouver
16 Increase 1 Goldcorp Inc. 1,749,000[1] Vancouver
17 Increase 123 Manulife Financial 1,736,000 Toronto
18 Increase 3 Rogers Communications 1,700,000 Toronto
19 Increase 966 Sun Life Financial 1,674,000 Toronto
20 Decrease 2 Power Financial 1,626,00 Montreal
21 Increase 7 National Bank of Canada 1,561,000 Montreal
22 Increase 2 Agrium Inc. 1,494,000[1] Calgary
23 Increase 10 Magna International 1,433,000[1] Aurora, Ontario
24 Decrease 8 Brookfield Asset Management 1,380,000[1] Toronto
25 Decrease 3 TransCanada Pipelines 1,360,000 Calgary
26 Decrease 6 TransCanada Corporation 1,354,000 Calgary
27 Increase 10 RioCan REIT 1,344,000 Toronto
28 Decrease 1 Telus Corporation 1,318,000 Burnaby
29 Decrease 10 Brookfield Office Properties 1,287,000[1] Toronto
30 Decrease 7 Cenovus Energy 993,000 Calgary
31 Decrease 1 Canadian Oil Sands 981,000 Calgary
32 Increase 84 Calloway REIT 898,392 Vaughan
33 Decrease 2 Power Corporation of Canada 832,000 Montreal
34 Decrease 24 Teck Resources 811,000 Vancouver
35 Steady IGM Financial 770,984 Winnipeg
36 Increase 6 HSBC Bank Canada 751,000 Vancouver
37 Increase 21 Shaw Communications 728,000 Calgary
38 Decrease 4 Enbridge Inc. 715,000 Calgary
39 Decrease 13 Boardwalk REIT 688,514 Calgary
40 Decrease 1 Loblaw Companies 650,000 Brampton
41 Increase 3 Shoppers Drug Mart 608,481 Toronto
42 Decrease 6 Bombardier Inc. 588,000[1] Valcourt, Quebec
43 Increase 14 Intact Financial 587,000 Toronto
44 Increase 3 Silver Wheaton 586,036[1] Vancouver
45 Increase 8 Canadian Utilities 580,000 Calgary
46 Increase 48 Jean Coutu Group 558,400 Longueuil
47 Increase 185 Fairfax Financial Holdings 532,400[1] Toronto
48 Decrease 1 Pacific Rubiales Energy 527,729[1] Toronto
49 Increase 7 Canadian Tire Corporation 499,200 Toronto
50 Increase 878 H&R REIT 498,804 Toronto
51 Decrease 7 George Weston Limited 486,000 Toronto
52 Decrease 6 Canadian Pacific Railway 484,000 Calgary
53 Increase 11 Metro Inc. 481,800 Montreal
54 Increase 878 E-L Financial Corporation 472,741 Toronto
55 Increase 22 Genworth MI Canada 470,422 Oakville, Ontario

References - "Top 1000: Exclusive rankings of Canada's most profitable companies". The Globe and Mail. June 28, 2013.

Best universities in Canada by reputation: 2017 ranking

Best Overall University Highest Quality Most Innovative Leaders of Tomorrow
1 Toronto 1 2 1
2 Waterloo 3 1 3
3 British Columbia 4 4 2
4 McGill 2 3 4
5 Alberta 7 6 5
6 Queen's 5 7 6
7 McMaster 6 5 7
8 Western 8 9 12
9 Montréal 9 13 8
10 Simon Fraser 11 10 10
11 Ryerson 19 8 9
12 Calgary 15 12 11
13 Guelph 14 11 14
14 Dalhousie 10 14 19
15 Ottawa 12 16 15
16 Victoria 13 17 18
17 Laval 16 15 16
18 Concordia 18 19 13
19 Sherbrooke 26 18 17
20 Memorial Newfoundland 17 20 24
21 York 22 21 20
22 Saskatchewan 21 22 22
23 Carleton 24 24 21
24 Laurier 20 23 28
25 Manitoba 28 27 26
26 New Brunswick 29 26 33
27 Acadia 25 32 30
28 UQAM 33 28 23
29 Mount Allison 23 35 38
30 St. Francis Xavier 27 38 31
31 Lethbridge 31 29 29
32 Brock 34 33 25
33 UOIT 41 25 27
34 Regina 35 31 35
35 Trent 32 34 37
36 Saint Mary's 30 39 40
37 New Brunswick 40 30 34
38 Winnipeg 37 37 39
39 Windsor 38 36 36
40 Bishop's 36 41 32
41 Prince Edward Island 39 40 47
42 Lakehead 44 42 43
43 Mount Saint Vincent 42 44 44
44 Laurentian 45 43 41
45 Moncton 43 46 48
46 Cape Breton 48 45 42
47 St. Thomas 46 47 49
48 Brandon 47 48 45
49 Nipissing 49 49 46

Best colleges and institutes in Canada

  • VCAD Visual College of Art and Design
  • InternationalMasters Program for Managers
  • CDI College
  • Reeves College
  • Vancouver Career College
  • LaSalle College Vancouver
  • Inter-Dec College
  • Montreal International Language Centre
  • LaSalle College Montreal
  • Nimbus School of Recording & Media
  • Whistler Adventure School
  • HEC Montréal Business Language Training Center
  • Academy Of Applied Pharmaceutical Sciences (AAPS)
  • EcoleSupérieureOuverte à Distance
  • Pacific Rim College
  • Centre for Arts and Technology
  • Canadian College Of Massage & Hydrotherapy
  • Inlingua Victoria College of Languages and Careers
  • Laurentide Aviation
  • London Language Institute
  • Smartly
  • King George International Business College
  • St.Thomas Flight Centre
  • IONISx Executive education
  • Unitelma Sapienza
  • Centennial College
  • Sault College
  • The Centre for Digital Media - The CDM
  • Confederation College
  • Le Cordon Bleu Ottawa
  • Greystone College
  • Alexander College
  • Aveda Institute Canada
  • Cégep de Sept-Îles
  • Keyin College
  • City Colleges - Online Learning
  • Saskatchewan Polytechnic
  • In Focus Film School
  • Medicine Hat College
  • Douglas College
  • Camber College
  • College Boreal
  • Montreal College of Information Technology
  • Morgan International
  • Canadian College
  • CampusCanada
  • ESMAC :ÉcoleSupérieure des Métiers des Arts appliqués et de la Culture
  • INEAD
  • Think Tank Training Centre
  • Focus Education Centre of Canada
  • Montreal Technical College (MTC)
  • ENACO
  • Fleming College
  • APLUS Institute
  • Bow Valley College
  • Sprott Shaw College
  • Via Training Centre
  • IBT College
  • Vancouver Film School – VFS
  • Faculty of Education University of Ontario Institute of Technology
  • Carleton University, Faculty of Engineering and Design
  • Fanshawe College
  • Cambridge Marketing College
  • Telfer School of Management
  • triOS College
  • Ashton College
  • EC Language Centres
  • Executive Hotel Management College
  • Eurocentres - Language schools
  • NYIT-Vancouver
  • Sandermoen School of Business
  • Adler School of Professional Psychology
  • NSCAD University - Nova Scotia College of Art and Design
  • Aeres University of Applied Sciences
  • Humber College Institute of Technology & Advanced Learning
  • Université Laval – Faculty of Business

Must-Experience Festivals in Canada

Freezer Burn

Location: Ponoka, Alberta ,Month June

Country Thunder Saskatchewan

Location: Craven, Saskatchewan,Month July

Emerge Festival

Location: Laurentian Valley, Ontario, Month June-July

Montebello Rockfest

Location: Montebello, Quebec, Month June

Wienerfest Home County Festival

Location: Embro, Ontario, Month June

Festival du Bacon

Location: Sherbrooke, Quebec, Month May

World Championship Bathtub Race

Location: Nanaimo, British Columbia, Month July

Oktoberfest

Location: Kitchener-Waterloo, Ontario, Month October

Winnipeg Folk Festival

Location: Winnipeg, Manitoba, Month July

Chocolate Fest

Location: St. Stephen, New Brunswick, Month August

Parksville Beach Festival

Location: Parksville, British Columbia, Month July-August

Cavendish Beach Music Festival

Location: Cavendish, Prince Edward Island, Month July

Elvis Festival

Location: Collingwood, Ontario, Month July

Snowking’s Winter Festival


Location: Yellowknife, Northerwest Territories, Month March

Calgary Stampede

Location: Calgary, Alberta, Month July

Winter Carnival, Quebec City (Quebec), Month-February

Celtic Colours, Cape Breton Island (Nova Scotia), Month October

Festival du Voyageur, Winnipeg (Manitoba), Month February

Vancouver Playhouse International Wine Festival (British Columbia), Month March

Dawson City Music Festival (Yukon), Month July

Caribana (Toronto) Month July-August

Festival Acadien, Caraquet (New Brunswick), Month August

NXNE, Toronto, Month June

Ottawa Bluesfest

Lebreton Flats Park, Ottawa, Ontario, Month July

Osheaga

Parc Jean Drapeau, Montreal, Quebec, Month August

Parc Jean Drapeau, Montreal, Quebec, Month August

Montreal Jazz Fest

Downtown Montreal, Month July

Squamish Valley Music Festival

Squamish, BC (about 45 minutes from Vancouver), Month August

Sled Island Festival

Calgary, Alberta, Month June

Edmonton Folk Fest

Gallagher Park, Edmonton, Month August

Winnipeg Folk Festival

Bird's Hill Provincial Park, Winnipeg, Manitoba.Month July

Population by religion, by province and territory (2001 Census)

(Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan)

  Canada Quebec Ontario Manitoba Saskatchewan
Total population 29,639,035 7,125,580 11,285,550 1,103,700 963,150
Catholic 12,936,905 5,939,715 3,911,760 323,690 305,390
Protestant 8,654,850 335,590 3,935,745 475,185 449,195
Christian Orthodox 479,620 100,375 264,055 15,645 14,280
Christian not included
Elsewhere 780,450 56,750 301,935 44,535 27,070
Muslim 579,640 108,620 352,530 5,095 2,230
Jewish 329,995 89,915 190,795 13,040 865
Buddhist 300,345 41,380 128,3205,745 3,050  
Hindu 297,200 24,525 217,5553,835 1,585  
Sikh 278,410 8,225 104,785 5,485 500
Eastern religions 37,550 3,425 17,780 795 780
Other religions 63,975 3,870 18,985 4,780 6,750
No religious affiliation 4,900,090 413,190 1,841,290 205,865 151,455

Population by year, by province and territory (Number)

  2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Canada 35,152.4 35,535.3 35,832.5 36,264.6 36,708.1
Newfoundland and Labrador 527.4 528.4 528.8 530.3 528.8
Prince Edward Island 145.2 145.9 146.8 149.5 152.0
Nova Scotia 943.0 942.2 941.5 948.6 953.9
New Brunswick 755.7 754.7 753.9 757.4 759.7
Quebec 8,151.3 8,210.5 8,254.9 8,321.9 8,394.0
Ontario 13,555.8 13,680.4 13,789.6 13,976.3 14,193.4
Manitoba 1,265.6 1,280.9 1,295.4 1,318.1 1,338.1
Saskatchewan 1,104.8 1,120.6 1,131.2 1,148.6 1,163.9
Alberta 3,998.0 4,108.4 4,177.5 4,236.4 4,286.1
British Columbia 4,590.1 4,646.5 4,694.7 4,757.7 4,817.2
Yukon 36.3 36.8 37.3 38.1 38.5
Northwest Territories 43.8 43.9 44.2 44.6 44.5
Nunavut 35.4 36.1 36.6 37.2 38.0

Note: Population as of July 1.

Source: Statistics Canada, CANSIM, table 051-0001.

Canada’s Richest People 2016: The Top 25 Richest Canadians

25. Frank Stronach

Total Net Worth: $3 billion

Change from last year: 2%

24. David Cheriton

Total Net Worth: $3.05 billion

Change from last year: 5%

23. Fred & Ron Mannix

Total Net Worth: $3.06 billion

Change from last year: 10%

22. Bob & Tom Gaglardi

Total Net Worth: $3.10 billion

Change from last year: 20%

21.Sobey Family(Paul Sobey)

Total Net Worth: $3.19 billion

Change from last year: 7%

20. Mark Scheinberg

Total Net Worth: $3.24 billion

Change from last year: none

19. Aquilini family (Francesco Aquilini)

Total Net Worth: $3.31 billion

Change from last year: 18%

18. Harrison McCain family

Total Net Worth: $3.53 billion

Change from last year: 7%

17.Estate of Wallace McCain

Total Net Worth: $3.55 billion

Change from last year: 3%

16.Alain Bouchard

Total Net Worth: $3.89 billion

Change from last year: 55%

15.Estate of David Azrieli

Total Net Worth: $3.92 billion

Change from last year: 25%

14.Daryl Katz

Total Net Worth: $4.14 billion

Change from last year: 15%

13.Bernard “Barry” Sherman

Total Net Worth: $4.16 billion

Change from last year: 19%

12.CarloFidani

Total Net Worth: $4.84 billion

Change from last year: 6%

11. Jeff Skoll

Total Net Worth: $5.22 billion

Change from last year: 4%

10. Richardson Family

Total Net Worth: $5.63 billion

Change from last year: 12%

9. Estate of Paul Demarais Sr.

Total Net Worth: $6.10 billion

Change from last year: 9%

8. Saputo Family(Lino Saputo Jr.)

Total Net Worth: $6.43 billion

Change from last year: 3%

7. James “Jimmy” Pattison

Total Net Worth: $6.89 billion

Change from last year: 12%

6. Joseph Tsai

Total Net Worth: $7.30 billion

New for 2016!

5.Irving Family(James, Arthur and John Irving)

Total Net Worth: $7.50 billion

Change from last year: 9%

4.Rogers Family(Edward S. Rogers)

Total Net Worth: $8.86 billion

Change from last year: 20%

3. Garrett Camp

Total Net Worth: $9.18 billion

NEW for 2016!

2. Galen Weston

Total Net Worth: $13.67 billion

Change from last year: 20%

1.Thomson Family(David Thomson)

Total Net Worth: $36.76 billion

Change from last year: 20%

The Power List: Canada’s Most Powerful Business People 2017

  • 25. Nancy Southern, CEO, ATCO Ltd.
  • 24. Neil Bruce, CEO, SNC-Lavalin Group
  • 23. Alain Bellemare, CEO, Bombardier Inc.
  • 21. (TIE) Rich Kruger, CEO, Imperial Oil Ltd.
  • 21. (TIE) George Schindler, CEO, CGI Group
  • 20. Steve Williams, CEO, Suncor Energy
  • 19. Lino Saputo Jr., CEO, Saputo Inc.
  • 17.(TIE) Neil Rossy, CEO, Dollarama Inc.
  • 17.(TIE) Paul Desmarais Jr., Co-CEO, Power Corp. of Canada
  • 16. Gerry Schwartz, CEO, ONEX Corp.
  • 14. (TIE) James Smith, CEO, Thomson Reuters Corp.
  • 14.(TIE) Galen G. Weston, President Loblaw Cos.
  • 11.(TIE) PremWatsa, CEO, Fairfax Financial Holdings
  • 11. (TIE) Hunter Harrison, CEO Canadian Pacific Railway Ltd.
  • 11. (TIE) Darren Entwistle, CEO Telus Corp.
  • 10. Luc Jobin, CEO, Canadian National Railway Co.
  • 9. George Cope, CEO, BCE Inc.
  • 8. Victor Dodig, CEO Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce
  • 6. (TIE) William Downe, CEO Bank of Montreal
  • 6. Brian Hannasch, CEO, Alimentation Couche-Tard
  • 5. Bharat Masrani, CEO, Toronto-Dominion Bank
  • 4. Bruce Flatt, CEO Brookfield Asset Management
  • 2. (TIE) Brian Porter, CEO Bank of Nova Scotia
  • 2. (TIE) Donald Walker, CEO Magna International
  • 1. David McKay, CEO Royal Bank of Canada